Every now and then, while drinking tea, you'll stumble upon something special. A tea that pins you in your seat like a sudden revelation. Its flavor, depth, and richness shine in a way that leaves other teas well behind. What makes this tea so unique?
More often than not, it's a tea coming from a high altitude in the heart of a mountain. High Mountain Tea (Gao Shan Cha – 高山茶) is something special in the world of teas, standing out distinctly when compared to Tai Di Cha (台地茶) – Lowland Tea or Plantation Tea. High Mountain Tea, growing in challenging, high-altitude conditions, develops a character and exceptional qualities, earning it a place of honor in the tea community. These harsh, rugged terrains often appear unwelcoming, making High Mountain Tea literally fight for its life. In a long process of adaptation and evolution, the Gao Shan Tea developed a number of techniques, that helped it not only survive but thrive, drawing from the land and weather to offer flavors and aromas that are a class apart. The concept of 'terroir' also plays a role here; it's all about how the environment, soil, and climate impact the tea's development and taste. They reflect the very soul of the regions in which they grow.
In contrast, Taidi Cha, grown under more favorable conditions (and often additional help from humans) in the lowlands, is more common and lacks the refined and nuanced profile of high mountain varieties.
So, let's explore more about these fascinating teas and the lands they come from. We'll discover High Mountain Tea's fight for survival and how it turns it into a top tea.
How Harsh Conditions Craft Exceptional Flavor Profiles
The challenging conditions these tea plants face make them fight for survival, developing rich, concentrated flavors and a robust aroma profile. This struggle and adaptation contribute to High Mountain Tea's renowned quality and taste. High in the mountains, the terrain is rugged, the nutrients are scarce, and the environment is often harsh and unwelcoming. With time, the tea plant growing in these areas has created some resourceful ways to adapt. They limit the loss of valuable nutrients and allow the plant to make the most of all available resources for its survival and development. At the same time, they shape a distinct character and unique flavor profile of High Mountain Tea, which cannot be replicated elsewhere. Just as hardships, trials, and tribulations temper human nature and put a man on the path of growth and personal evolution.
High Mountain Tea's distinct flavor profiles and superior quality make it stand out more vividly than the more common Taidi Cha (台地茶). The latter grows in more favorable, lowland conditions. However, it often misses out on the variety of flavors and aromas compared to its high-altitude counterparts. We'll explore the differences in the following paragraphs.
Altitude Alchemy: Crafting Flavor in High Mountain Teas
The landscapes of high mountainous areas are renowned for their beauty, but they are far from ideal for plant growth. The high elevations expose the tea plants to significant temperature fluctuations, intense sunlight, and reduced oxygen levels. It's a battle against the elements, where only the toughest survive. Here, the tea plants grapple with the raw energy of nature, absorbing its essence and converting it into complex flavors.
Fighting with the elements: temperature, oxygen, sunlight
The altitudes, harsh to most plant life, are where these tea plants face significant temperature fluctuations. The days are warm, allowing the tea leaves to absorb the sunlight and nourish, but the nights can be unforgivingly cold. This constant shift from warm to cold makes the tea plant work overtime, adjusting its metabolic processes to survive, leading to the development of unique and complex flavor compounds that are a signature of High Mountain Teas.
Additionally, the high elevations mean the oxygen levels are much lower, challenging the tea plants to adapt or perish. This scarcity of oxygen slows down the growth of the tea leaves, making them denser and richer in flavor. The struggle for survival makes the tea plant focus its energy on developing robust leaves with concentrated flavors and aromas, which translates into a premium tea experience for the drinker.
The stronger UV radiation at such altitudes is another factor in sculpting the character of High Mountain Tea. The intense UV radiation increases the amount of polyphenols within the tea leaves to protect themselves. Alternatively, the denser fogs and mists in the mountain increase the amount of amino acids. The result is a fuller body and richer yet refined and exquisite taste, adding another layer to the tea experience.
The combination of the above factors within a specific area forms a unique terroir that reveals itself in brewing and tasting the teas that grow there. A noteworthy example is the famous Yancha (岩茶), or Rock Tea, a High Mountain Oolong Tea from the Chinese province of Fujian, as well as Fenghuang Dancong from Chaozhou in Guangdong. The unique environment of WuYi mountain's high altitude slopes shapes a distinct "Rock Flavor" that has become the signature mark of the tea growing in that area. As for Dancong Oolong, the intense mineral notes atop a distinct floral character create a unique "Shan Yun" or "Mountain Flavor" (山韵) that one cannot discover below a certain altitude. Both teas have distinct terroirs, making them highly sought after among tea drinkers. Taiwan High Mountain Tea is another example of an oolong High Mountain Tea with a clearly expressed terroir and a very characteristic flavor profile.
* close-up on Da Hong Pao tea fields in Wuyi mountain
Taidi Cha: The Straightforward Brew of the Lowlands
Contrarily, the Taidi Cha grows in lower, more hospitable altitudes and doesn't face such harsh conditions, leading to a more straightforward and less complex profile. The lack of adversity doesn't push the tea plant to develop the richness and depth of flavors found in High Mountain Teas. The resulting tea experience, while pleasant, often lacks the layered complexity and intensity of its high-altitude counterparts.
In the rough terrains of elevated landscapes, the tea plant faces a constant challenge, fighting against the extremes, concentrating its energy, and slowing its growth rate, all in a bid to survive. This struggle reveals various flavors and aromas unattainable in teas from gentler terrains.
The Art of Survival: How Tea Plants Adapt in High Mountains
High up in the mountains, where the air is thin and the UV radiation intense, tea plants have learned to survive and even thrive in the face of adversity through a set of remarkable adaptation strategies. Each strategy serves a purpose in their survival while contributing to the sophisticated flavor profile of High Mountain Teas.
Robust Roots: Anchors of Life
The first of these adaptations is the development of robust roots, the lifelines of tea plants in these tough terrains. In a rocky, mountainous terrain where the soil is scarce, these roots delve deep into the ground, seeking nutrients and water essential for the plant's survival. As they draw from the mineral-rich mountain soil, they infuse the leaves with myriad flavors, shaping a complex and varied taste and aroma profile.
Thicker Leaves: Shields of Flavor
To protect themselves from the intense high-altitude UV radiation, the leaves of the tea plant grow thicker. This natural shield not only protects the inner workings of the leaf but also serves to trap the aromatic compounds and flavors within, creating a dense, flavorful brew. The thicker the leaf, the richer the flavor, as the plant packs more of its essence into every inch of its foliage, allowing for a more concentrated tea experience.
Slower Growth Rate: A Symphony of Flavors
In these higher regions, the slower growth rate due to the harsh conditions gives the leaves more time to develop their complex flavor profiles. This unhurried development allows for the accumulation of more nutrients and aromatic compounds within the leaves.
These survival mechanisms of the tea plants, though developed to thrive in a hostile environment, have the wonderful side effect of creating a depth of flavor, aromatic complexity, and richness unparalleled in lowland teas. Every sip of such pure tea reveals the resilience and the adaptive brilliance of the tea plant and the epitome of nature's creativity.
Unpretentious and Accessible: Why Taidi Cha is the Everyday Go-To Brew
Diving into the world of taidi cha, or lowland tea, one can easily notice its abundance and accessibility, in contrast to its high mountain cousin. Its prevalence is partially due to the less harsh, more nurturing growing conditions, making for easier cultivation and a larger yield.
Roots: Unlike High Mountain Tea, the roots of taidi cha, growing in more abundant soil, may not develop the same resilience and depth. That results in a more straightforward flavor profile without the complexity of its highland counterpart.
Leaves: In contrast to the thick, denser leaves of High Mountain Tea, the leaves of lowland tea are not subject to the same environmental pressures. They tend to be thinner and may lack the substantial texture and multi-dimensional flavor profile, often offering fewer infusions with consistent but less evolving flavors.
Growth Rate: High Mountain Tea grows slower, resulting in concentrated flavors and aromas, offering a truly unique tea experience. In contrast, Taidi Cha has a much quicker growth rate due to optimal conditions. It typically presents more single-note flavors, which can be pleasant but are generally considered less sophisticated than those of High Mountain Teas.
Additionally, the abundant fertilization of Taidi Cha further speeds up the growth of the leaves. That often leads to excessive production of polyphenols, translating into an overpowering bitterness that mutes the more delicate sweet or umami notes in tea leaves.
Brewing Experience: High Mountain Tea's varied profile and unique terroir are reflected in the depths and richness of the tea soup. On the other hand, Lowland Tea lacks a specific terroir and provides a simpler, one-dimensional profile and overall tea experience.
In wrapping up, High Mountain Tea stands out due to the harsh conditions it grows in, giving us unique and layered flavors not found in everyday Taidi Cha. The challenges of high altitudes lead to thicker leaves, stronger roots, and slower growth, all contributing to its superior taste and aroma. In comparison, Lowland Tea offers a simpler, more straightforward profile, making it a common, less expensive option, ideal for daily consumption. This contrast between the two types showcases the vast diversity and experiences tea can offer from leaf to cup.
So, go out there and explore the wide range of teas – from lowlands to high mountains! Dive into the intricate flavors and scents and appreciate the remarkable journey of these resilient plants from their lofty homes to your cup. Enjoy!